November 3, 2021 is critical for keeping Virginia blue. 

Finale Norton Candidate HD100


With these Democratic pro-choice women in office, the state legislature has made the safety, health, and economic opportunities of Virginians its top priorities. Progress has been made across the board, with accomplishments that include passing landmark climate change legislation, increasing voter accessibility, removing restrictions on reproductive health care, passing sweeping criminal justice reform, and investing in education.

This is our opportunity to reflect what the 2022 Election will Look like. Ladies we must make America, The UNITED STATES Again, And, get rid of the divisiveness that’s destroying our country. It won’t happen; When your  platform is a struggle for power by any means necessary, even being willing to let our babies die along with All other  vulnerable Americans, just to prove your Power-Point.

We cannot allow the Jim Crow ideology to take us back to a place in history where, “ So many of us are afraid to even admit existed. Where critical race theory has some of us ,shaking in her boots! and losing our minds, They wants no part of American history being taught, Showing the good, bad and ugly of what made us who we are today. 

There’s so much about our history, we’re not proud of; But, it is what it is. We should be ashamed of it; But the future we want for our children, will not allow us to remain in the shamed Box. We must hang our history up to dry, then lay it to rest, but never forget, because forgetting will allow it to repeat.

Virginia: November 3, 2021, the spotlight is on us!!!

Biden Pelosi and Schumer

To: Mr. Biden, Mrs. Pelosi, and Mr. Schumer: Your Base delivered the Presidency and a majority in Congress. Now, Grandmothers, mothers and women (GMW ), thinks It’s time You deliver the Voting Rights and the People’s Act into law. The Voting Rights Acts has to be your priority. In 2022 if we can’t vote you can’t win

Its a Darn-shame we’re still marching for Voters Rights in 2021. You Three (3) have the power to make sure the right to vote is never an issue again. Make the GOP work as hard for our votes as they are working to prevent us from voting. Mr. Biden and Schumer, your are not a minority, but the MAJORITY, Mrs. Pelosi please continue to kick-butts, we have your back, but we would like to see you become more vociferous about what the GOP is doing to suppress the vote

President Biden, Why haven’t you Met with your democratic officials from Texas. They left their families and the comforts of home, to come to Washington, fighting against Texas’s GOP’s passing voter suppression laws; you appears to be giving your attention to everything except meeting with them, I have not heard you acknowledge their presence or their issues. Do you mind telling us Why.


Your Base need you to deliver on your campaign promise. The Filibuster has to go. Jim Crow is out of place. If you cater to your Base, winning elections will never be your problem. Especially, If you stand on your principles and values, the filibuster would be obsolete, plus it’s not constitutional.

Every Democratic Leader should be pushing back against what the GOP is trying to do with voter suppressive laws. Instead of jumping on the bandwagon for Cuomo to resign; What about getting on the bandwagon to pass the John Lewis Voting Rights Bill

Mr. Cuomo and the Infrastructure is consuming the attention of all democratic leaders right now; why? Doesn’t Mr. Cuomo deserve due process: The Investigation is finish, impeachment him if you want him Out. He deserve better than trial by a court of Public Opinion. What happened to innocent until proven guilty. Mr. Al Franken listen to you all, and he made a big mistake.

Senators: Manchin W Va., Sinema Arizona

Mr. Manchin and Mrs. Sinema: You would not be apart of a majority senate if the voter of Georgia had not delivered. Now you have the power to work on behalf of your constituents and party; that’s where we would like to See you focus on.

In Virginia our Democratic Leaders knows we will deliver for them this November 2021. They also, let their voters know they hear us.  We still have a lot of work to do; especially with the violence, but we’re confident we can fix it together.

Delta variant Death Belongs to the GOP

Each Delta Variant  Pandemic Death Rests At The Feet And♥️Of The GOP.

Our Former President and His 1st Lady Got Their vaccine In Early January 21, I will not elaborate on this, simply because they did what all sensible and responsible,Americans should have done.

Grandmothers, mothers and women (Gmw); I have no sympathy whatsoever (But, I will ask God to forgive them, for they know not what they do), for any Unvaccinated American 12 and up, who ends-up on Ventilators, from refusing to get vaccinated for something that has killed so many People around the world. Plus, they are endangering the lives of all babies under 12; who look to us for protection. For the NFL, I have no sympathy for them either. They are paid very well to do a job, they have a megaphone that we all listen to. This pandemic makes each of us, our brothers and sisters keepers. Those not vaccinated, are also unnecessarily subjecting first responders, and our medical professional to necessary dangerous, For your selfish behavior.

The Face of America

All of our children from 11 to 0 has no access to vaccines; they are totally vulnerable, And it’s up to each of us, from 12 and  up to protect them, by getting vaccinated, and creating Herd  immunity; to protect the most vulnerable among us, our babies. I have 11 grands and great grands under 12, I’m totally pissed at those of you, who can protect yourself from the virus, (and my babies can’t),and you choose to be selfish, thinking only of yourself. Covid-19, doesn’t care about your first, second or third amendment rights, if there is a third.

The filibuster should either be eliminated, or force to work, as it was originally stated. Stay on the floor and talk about your opposition to whatever bill you are against or for. Congress, it’s time for each of you, to be held accountable for our behavior.

Face of Liberal White Supremist

Mr. Manchin  and Mrs. Sinema: You are the face of the Liberal White Supremest.  The euphemisms you are using for not voting with your party to keep Jim Crow in the gutters, stop the voter suppression tactics the GOP is trying to implementing all over the country. Your behavior is deplorable’; and your fellow-white liberals supremacists, who’s hiding behind you, should be ashamed of themselves also. You  are making sure, my children of color, will not get equal justice under the law or give DC. , Representation for their taxation, and pass the peoples act. These are issues your party stood for, When your base gave you a majority in Congress. 

You need to take a page from the Texas Democrats, they are making the greatest sacrifices of leaving their families, exposing themselves to Covid-19 and other discomfort, just to try and give the Texas GOP time to use common-sense and stop their Voter suppressive legislation. And, you can’t even-vote with your party, to do what’s right form America, shame on you.

The GOP and selfish Americans: You are totally responsible for whether or not, our schools are open this fall, and our children back in school safe and healthy-being taught American History, the real foundation for critical race theory and January 6th.

Senator Manchin POTUS & Senator Sinema

GMW: it’s incumbent upon each of us to be diligent, ensuring, Mr. Mancini, Ms. Sinema, and President Biden, Use their Megaphones to define their support for the continuation of the Filibuster. For it to remain, it has to revert back to a real-in-house-on-the floor filibuster. The impact of its use has been Devastating for people of color. Whomever wants it, has to work for it. A phone call Can no longer be sufficient, to enact a filibuster. They should stand on the floor and argue their dissent, pros or cons for however long it takes.

Your Democratic Base gave you a majority in Congress and the Oval Office, So you could pass those bills into Law, We want them prioritize and passed. How it gets done is your responsibility; we did our part, now we will greatly appreciate, you doing yours!

All of our children under 12, Has to depend on us to keep them safe, because there is no vaccine for them yet. I have placed our babies safely in God’s hands, and pray, He keeps them safe; while Politicians continually, act like fools. This I pray in Jesus name🙏

America has a mean streak

America: We all know this country has a, “Mean streak,” Starting with (Slavery). America is made-up of families, and each of us is attached to a family, that has someone in it with a mean streak, heck! “it could be you.”

Past and Current Presidents: America need you to find common ground for her sake.

Now: For the GOP and the Dem., We need to, “Get-a-grip on our Divisiveness.” The only way we are going to accomplish this daunting task is to allow our Faith to guide us, With the serenity to except the things we cannot change;  courage to change the things we can, and the wisdom to know the difference. I’m referencing the power that created the Universe, which includes each of us. We need to start at the top of our power- structures

  1. Biden-Harris / Trump-Pence
  2. Schumer-McConnell
  3. Pelosi-McCarthy
  4. Governors-General assembly
  5. Mayors-City Councils
  6. Churches-Communities
  7. Families-Neighbors

The violence, with guns in particular, that’s happening all across our country is unprecedented. Some seems to think that it’s all because of the defund the police cry that we have heard from some communities, because of the Disproportionate,killing of black people by the police.

The United States of America

All Common sense Americans (Candace Owens, included) knows  the police is as vital to our safety, in our Neighborhoods, cities and states;as our military is for our country and the world. all of us, also knows the violence perpetrated on people of color by the police in most cases, is totally unnecessary, brutal, and racist, George Floyd’s Murder, televised in living color, proves that point.

The GOP is implying ,”the Democrats wants to defund the police, and Democrats are saying,” The GOP tried to kill the police on January 6th, in living color, also televised,” with our former President, as the ring leader. We can easily fine enough blame for each side, to be found totally guilty in our court of public opinion,  and some by our judicial system. 

This Is Who We Are: Good, Bad and Ugly

All Sensible, discerning, understanding with integrity-Americans  knows, “Jim Crow laws can never exist again,”  because our children would have to repeat our mistakes of systemic racism. So many of our  children are too racially interconnected to tolerate Jim Crow. Because, one parent is white and the other is black; you can’t change or legislate that. All Daca-children needs their citizenship.

Our children do not manufacture or the sell guns, that’s wrecking havoc in our communities, at alarming rates lately; it seems to have nefarious backing; Either the communities of color has lost their mind, or police departments are trying to prove they are valid and necessary. I think both sides needs to have a cup of, face to face with honesty, themselves, and each other. Also, both major political party, should have a drink from that same cup, and give Joe Manchin and Kyrsten Sinema a sip, or maybe they need their own cup!! For the party divisiveness They have been practicing lately.

Please excuse this expression America, but, “ I think it’s a damn shame,” That in the 21st-century, with slavery as our unrefuted foundation and all the things we have gone though together as a country,( Wars, terrorist attacks, domestic and foreign), we’re still fighting for racial equality; voting rights, Equal Justice, justifiable statehood, Upholding the integrity of our constitution and maintaining our democracy.

Accept The Things We Can Change

For all of our white supremacist out their, I hate to burst your bubble, but, America was never great, because, when one race has to suppress another for their power, one of us them as a problem. If I must look small, so you can appear big, you or I needs to some make major some adjustments.

I’m placing all of us, and our messes, in Gods hands, knowing,” He has not brought us this for to leave us, This I pray In Jesus Name🙏The


Joe Manchin and Kristen Sinema:  Your  systemic racism is creating a major problem for Our Base…The future of our children, country and party.

Senators: Joe Manchin and Krysten Sinema

It would be nice if you would, “take a page from the GOP on party loyalty.” At least your party is fighting for our constitutional rights and democracy

I. What’s are you standing for; Because, what you are doing makes no sense to us: Grandmothers, mothers and women of color, and Americans of color. It would have been nice had you run for office on the GOP ticket, then we would known what party you’re with. You are exhibiting the behavior that gave birth to critical race theory. Voting rights , justice reform and the people’s Act, would not be necessary, if it were not for Systemic racism in OUR COUNTRY, Now my white brothers and sisters are so ashamed of Slavery, until they would like to thing it never happen, because of their Christians values. But it’s our history,And inquiring minds want to know about it.

🙏We will continue to pray for a United Democratic Party🙏


SLAVERY and JIM CROW: Gave Birth to Critical Race Theory.

To Democratic Majority Senators: Mancini, W. Va. and Kyrsten Sinema, Arz. Grandmothers, mothers and women, (Gmw) want you to know, “You are holding our Senate Democratic majority hostage, while playing with the lives of your BASE, (The  Democratic Party); plus Independence and some of John McCain’s GOP. Trump’s New Cult of the GOP, Is not the future of our country.

It would be nice if Main Stream Media, stop giving #45 so much coverage for his Idiotic behavior and statements. Whenever you give him coverage, I change my channel, and most times, don’t return to your station. Social Media realize they could survive without him.

Mr. Mancini and Ms. Sinema: Are You Going To Be Part of The Problem or Solution?

You can win the battles (Helping Mitch McConnell)! And lose the War.  Or:

You can Win the War (Help End the Filibuster)! And lose the Battle. Either-Or you can’t do both.

1619 Transatlantic Slave Trading

During a May 1865 American Anti-Slavery Society debate on whether the organization’s work was complete with the end of the Civil War, Frederick Douglass issued a famous warning on the need for ongoing vigilance: “Slavery has been called a great many names, and it will call itself by yet another name; and you and I and all of us had better wait and see what new form this old monster will assume, in what new skin this old snake will come forth next.”

Jim Crow in north-south

Systemic racism, white supremacy, and inequality did not end with either Emancipation or the Civil Rights Movement. The same forces that used poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and violent intimidation against earlier generations of citizens are continuing to use every voter suppression tool at their disposal to try to cling to power right now, and in many places “election integrity” has become the latest new name for a very old snake. The new Jim Crow word is: election integrity

This week, President Biden and Vice President Harris held a White House meeting with key civil rights leaders, who stressed the urgent need for taking more forceful action immediately during what must become a “summer of activism.” 

Virginians: Get ready to support the ticket.

Vote VA. Tuesday 11/2/2021

 Terry  McAuliff: For Governor

Bill Cosby and the Law

GMW:  With all of the chaos, or labor pains our country is going through right now: domestic terrorists, systemic racism, The fear of critical race theory, gun violence, urban violence, voter Suppression laws and prison gerrymandering , just to name a few. Now we have 8 of the 60 women who accused Bill Cosby of rape, speaking out, about his release from prison; Some of them are even saying, “it a boost for Black People,” when race has nothing to do with it; The law was corrected.

Correcting a wrong decision the DA made, who violated the law, and should be dealt with by the PA’s Bar Association. If he had not violated Mr. Cosby’s 5th Amendment rights, he would not have been found guilty.

Ladies, we all know rape is horrible, for us, our daughters and sons. There are so many rape victims, who were brutalize, reported the incident immediately, and some didn’t get justice. Those are the one my heart goes out for, and especially for children, who waited until adulthood before being able to talk about being rape.

Ladies when you wait over ten years to report a rape, it tends to sound like,”There is no fury like a woman scorn.” Ladies most of you are my age, and we all went through the sexual revolution culture, being young along with Mr. Cosby. That culture was symbolic in the sports arena and entertainment field as sex, drugs and Rock n Roll was the order of the day and being at a higher echelon.

If you were in Mr. Cosby’s circle, you were among the guppies, And maybe that’s why your careers never took of. All , except one of the women accusing  Mr. Cosby waited for over 30 years to speak out. There was no threats, preventing them from speaking out sooner.

Ladies your timing is suspect. We all knew there was a power in force, that needed to Mr. Cosby’s reputation ruined. Even the killing of his son, didn’t get the results, that over 40 white women and a DA, who broke the law was able to accomplish.  Mr. Cosby was all set to buy a major TV station before his ruin; now ladies you are making the ME2 movement, Lose validity.

We have to stop finding each other guilty in courts of public opinion. The DA was aware he did not have enough evidence for a conviction, so he violated the agreement of his predecessor and made Mr. Cosby do what he should not have forced to do. Testify against himself. You ladies appears to be taking advantage of white privilege.

Some of the ladies are saying Mr. Cosby, Disproportionately targeted black women, when 98% of the women were none black.

Bill Cosby‘s conviction is overturned: the courts opinion. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court, which overturn Mr. Cosby’s conviction, Wrote that a non-prosecution agreement that had been struck with Bruce L. Castor Jr., the former district attorney, meant that bill Cosby should not have been charged in the case for which he was convicted and sentenced in 2018. The court has barred a retrial.

Wrote that a non-prosecution agreement that had been struck with Bruce L Kalista Junior the former district attorney, meant that bill Cosby should not have been charged in the case for which he was convicted and sentenced in 2018. The court has barred a retrial

The Filibuster-Critical Race Theory-Juneteenth:


Our History Needs A Paradigm Shift :

Grandmothers, mothes and women (GMW), and America in general: Four hundred years after enslaved Africans were first brought to Virginia (1619), most Americans still don’t know the full story of slavery. the story of America’s History, We’re the United States of America; A very dysfunctional family right now; But, We-Are-who-We-Are. the good, bad and ugly.

Because Juneteenth became a legal holiday, JUNE 19, 2021, creating another major questions for so many of us, white and black, wanting to know, “what is Juneteenth? But, answers to the root origin of the Filibuster; Critical Race Theory , and Juneteenth; three  (3) very important questions, the answers to these questions will teach all of us more truth about America’s history.

According to the Brennan Center for Justice: State legislators have introduced 389 bills with restrictive voting provisions in 48 states;22 have already been enacted and 61 bills are currently moving through legislatures. This wave of bills — along with Republicans’ continued complicity in the  Big Lie means the GOP is increasingly seeking to narrow the electorate rather than appeal to a broader base of voters, particularly voters of color.

This strategy will ultimately lead our nation down the destructive path of white minority rule and autocracy. Our entire democratic system is in jeopardy when politics focuses on fights over access rather than on policies to advance the common good.  For this reason alone, the passage of  the John Lewis Voting Rights Act and the For the People Act: Is imperative.

The Filibuster rule, which requires a minimum of 60 votes to pass in the Senate; has only been used in controversial issues—like the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and several anti-lynching acts—but in recent years it’s become more frequently used.

Bills that can’t pass the current debate churns on, from voting rights to LGBTQ, and protections for gun control, to name a few: a list of 15 bills and issues that cannot be currently passed due to the filibuster rules, very important issues affected by this obscure legislative rule.

Critical Race Theory: Is a relatively new analytical approach to describing the reality of systemic racism today, and pretend chattel slavery never happened. In simple terms, ignoring the fact that this country was built on the free labor or African American Slaves. The Northern Colonies were more guilty of slavery than they wish to admit. In New York for example. The Hidden History of Wall Street’s Slave Market

In recent years, US banks have made public apologies for the role they played in slavery. In 2005, JP Morgan Chase, currently the biggest bank in the US, admitted that two of its subsidiaries – Citizens’ Bank and Canal Bank in Louisiana – accepted enslaved people as collateral for loans. If plantation owners defaulted on loan payment the banks took ownership of these slaves.  JP Morgan was not alone. The predecessors that made up Citibank, Bank of America and Wells Fargo are among a list of well-known US financial firms that benefited from the slave trade. 

“Slavery was an overwhelmingly important fact of the American economy,” explains Sven Beckert, Laird Bell Professor of American History at Harvard University.

On December 14, 1711, a law passed by the New York City Common Council made Wall Street the city’s first official slave market for the sale and rental of enslaved Africans and Native Americans.

Although Lincoln had announced the Emancipation Proclamation two years earlier, freedom did not come for most African Americans until Union victory in April 1865 and, officially, in December 1865 with the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution. 2 years after the proclamation was made, Texas finally freed their slaves, in 1867.

Juneteenth is a National Holiday, I’m sure, the intellectual curiosity in each of us, wants to know, “what this holiday is all about.” Another view of America’s history. Each of us, and our children need to understand the past 400 hundred years we have lived with the consequences of history, but have not been able to address.

But now, by the Grace of God, we’re being forced to face what we have not been able to talk about or teach, America’s Real History. Our truth will make us stronger, better and finally a Great Nation. Otherwise, it’s going to continue to manifest itself, as it did with the uprising on our Capital, January 6, which personified just how deep Systemic racism still exist in our country. if we are to survive under our democracy, by our constitution. We must face our history together. The enslaved Africans Americans, has forgiven those who enslaved us. We had to, so we could move on with our lives. What are you afraid of about Critical Race Theory? We need to allow our TRUTH TO SET US FREE. Our children can handle the truth, why can us adults!!!

 Many communities of color, and Black communities in particular, have been excluded from democratic institutions, including voting, since the country’s founding. Even after African Americans won the right to vote, many were excluded by poll taxes, literacy tests, voter purges, and long lines at the polls. “When Black communities see they need to wait four hours to vote and their friends in white jurisdictions can get in and out in 15 minutes, that doesn’t look like democracy,” said Danielle Lang, co-director of voting rights and redistricting at Campaign Legal Center.

According to the Brennan Center for Justice:  State legislators have introduced 389 bills with restrictive voting provisions in 48 states; 22 have already been enacted and 61 bills are currently moving-through legislatures. This wave of bills — along with Republicans’ continued complicity in the Big Lie — means the GOP is increasingly seeking to narrow the electorate rather than appeal to a broader base of voters. Because of the increasing spate of voting restrictions, what we feared could happen in the last election is now an even greater threat as we look forward to 2022 and 2024.

The American People wants the Senate 50 majority to become a unified front; So, the Senate could act with urgency to suspend the filibuster for bills that directly address voting rights and democracy reform; doing so may be the last hope in the short term to strengthen our democracy and prevent future elections from really being stolen.

The most effective antidote to the forces currently poisoning our democracy involves a procedural rule that has increasingly been used as a bludgeon to block progress: the filibuster. It needs to go.

Everyone Reading My Blog: I have a petition on FB, Messenger and Twitter For: Getting Rid of The Fillbuster: Please sign it Thanks

This Blog is submitted in Jesus Name…Amen

Southern Borders Needs A Paradigm Shift

The Southern Borders Needs A Paradigm Shift; Biden-Harrie.

Grandmothers,mothers and women (GMW) in particular, and America in general:  If you keep doing the same things, you’re going to get the same results. Kamala Harris, Joe Biden, paradigm shift.

Border patrol doing their jobs

A Paradigm Shift Is Needed. Kamala Harris, knows the root cause of the southern border crisis, IS NOT AT THE BORDERS!!!

For the past decade Congress has used taxpayer dollars to build border wall, despite no evidence that it has any measurable effect on undocumented immigration. 

In 1969, President Richard Nixon launched Operation Intercept in hopes of forcing Mexico to collaborate more fully with his administration’s policies to stop the flow of drugs – one of his campaign promises.

In 1986, President Ronald Reagan signed a major immigration law that offered amnesty to people in the country illegally who arrived prior to 1982.

In 1994, President Bill Clinton established a prevention through deterrence border security strategy for the Border Patrol that concentrated enforcement resources on major entry corridors; his attempts to secure the border caused a humanitarian crisis.

In 2007, President George W. Bush Called On Congress To Pass Comprehensive Immigration Reform.  The President believes that America can simultaneously be a lawful, economically dynamic, and welcoming society. 


Obama tried deterring migrants with his characteristic lawyerly tact. Trump did it with his cruel, petty impulsiveness. Biden is doing it with his folksy toughness, with Kamala Harris. The styles are different, but up-until-now, the results of immigration deterrence has always been the same. So, now Biden and Harris is starting at the root causes, “ The Origin.” A Paradigm Shift.”

The current driving forces leading to migration are crime, poverty and political corruption. Children on the Run: Unaccompanied Children Leaving El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, running from Violence and extortion by powerful criminal organizations remain serious in these countries. Violence and extortion by powerful criminal organizations remain serious problems in These Areas. Also, fleeing crop failure, land and job shortages, rising taxes, and famine.

Children On The Run

According to the US Department of State, high murder rate in these countries are caused by four principal factors: an increase in drug trafficking; a growing prevalence of gang-related violence; a heavily armed civilian population; and a weak and incompetent police-judicial-systems.

So, GMW in particular and America in general, that’s why Kamala Harris, is not at the southern borders. GMW, let’s make sure she knows we have her back, front and sides; as she give the Southern Borders; A VPOTU with a Woman’s intellect.

This We Pray In Jesus’s Name. Amen


OBSTRUCTIONIST TO: Sensible Guns Laws, Justice Reforms, Voting RightsAct, Statehood for DC, Passage of Americas much needed infrastructure Bill.  Mr. Joe Mancini

Grandmothers mothers and women (GMW), Joe Mancini, democratic senator from West Virginia, is our answer to the question, “Is America Racist?” 

Voting should not be an issue In 2021. It was duly ratified to the Constitution March 30, 1870. 

Joe Mancini: Democratic senator from West Virginia

Mr. Mancini your racism is showing. Chuck Schumer, is your majority leader; but it appears you’re listening to your minority leader, Mitch McConnell. You need to decide, what more important, upholding the Constitution or trying to please the GOP, Who cares less about the constitution, unless it’s serving their purpose. The voter fraud theory is totally in violation of our constitution, and you know it. You also know the Senate is split 50/50, and the GOP, (weather we like it or not) have unity with their 50%, and be-dam to the American People.  Mr. Mancini, your party need the power of their 50% to accomplish goals for our country. God gave you an opportunity to stand-Up for 15th amendment, with the world watching, and you are choosing to show Racism, for something that’s already a done deal.

The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government and each state from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s “racecolor, or previous condition of servitude.” It was ratified on February 3, 1870,[1] as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.

In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of the millions of former black slaves. By 1869, amendments had been passed to abolish slavery and provide citizenship and equal protection under the laws, but the election of Ulysses S. Grant to the presidency in 1868 convinced a majority of Republicans that protecting the franchise of black male voters was important for the party’s future. On February 26, 1869, after rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Congress proposed a compromise amendment banning franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude. After surviving a difficult ratification fight, the amendment was certified as duly ratified and part of the Constitution on March 30, 1870